“…as for Nietzsche, from the beginning the evil spirit was stronger than the good one… Nietzsche was a man without any spiritual initiatives… I bet that in the entire Nietzsche not a single sentence, not a fragment of a sentence, let alone a thought or any constructive idea can be found, of which the author can’t be traced: Wagner, Plato, Simonides, Schopenhauer, Goethe (the ‘Ubermensch’ is from Faust…” – Houston Stewart Chamberlain, 1898.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the greatest bi-lingual thinker of his time, dismisses Nietzsche categorically as an unoriginal thinker, at best, and a plagiarist at worst. And he does not have much further to say on the matter, he is dismissive of Nietzsche after his break with Wagner which coincided with the shattering of Nietzsche’s intellect.
Interestingly, if we examine what we know of Nietzsche, we are faced with some questionable events in his life. For example his appointment to the Professorship of Basel University in Switzerland. Nietzsche does not meet any of the requirements for such an appointment. However what is certain is that around this time Nietzsche loses his Prussian citizenship, and moves to Switzerland, but is not accepted as a Swiss citizen, Nietzsche became officially stateless.. One would ask the question: ‘How is it possible that Nietzsche could receive such a high teaching position at Switzerland’s most prestigious University and not be made a Swiss citizen?’ Also, it would be controversial, to say the least, to appoint a non-practicing Christian to such a position. Could a man be appointed, at that time, to a teaching position in the faculty of classical Philosophy at Basel University and not be a practicing Christian? And furthermore, how can it be that the publishing house of Basel University, a printing press, would not publish and print Nietzsche’s early attempts at literary publishing. Obviously a Professor of the University of Basel would have access to the printing press at the University of Basel! Why does Nietzsche have to solicit private publishers in Leipzig and not use the more prestigious and freely available publishers and printing press of his own University, he was not writing under a pseudonym, so there is no need to employ private printers in another city. One of the entitlements of being a University Professor, is the fact that the University will publish and print your literary work, and with no cost to the individual, after all Universities are established printing houses! Does Nietzsche actually attain the Professorship at Basel University? Or does he just print some business cards with “Friedrich Nietzsche, Assistant Professor for Classical Philology” printed on them and pretend to family and friends that he has obtained such a lofty position. Perhaps Nietzsche did this to cover up the real reason as to why he lost his Prussian citizenship. And again, how can Nietzsche be made a Professor of the Swiss University and not be made a Swiss Citizen? Nietzsche was not even qualified for the position, neither and more notably was he qualified to meet Swiss resident requirements. This is a major problem regarding the genuineness of Nietzsche’s claims.
In 1868 Nietzsche is discharged from the Prussian army, but in 1870, Nietzsche writes to his sister that he is serving as a medical orderly with the Prussian army
In 1871, Nietzsche solicits private printers in Leipzig to publish and print two of his early essays, this is very odd because at the time Nietzsche was employed by the University of Basel. I repeat this because it is so odd. It seems impossible not to be suspicious at this point.
Nietzsche still is unable to publish, but has managed to further his friendship with the House of Wagner, and the ‘Birth of Tragedy’ is sent to Richard Wagner. And it is Richard Wagner’s connections who publish and print ‘The Birth of Tragedy’. Why it would not be the University of Basel that would print the essay I have no idea, it seems so highly improbable that they would not. However it is not Richard but Cosima Wagner who was the decisive factor in the early relationship between Nietzsche and the House of Wagner. There assumes a personal relationship rather then a professional relationship with the Master. Nietzsche has developed a personal friendship with Cosima Wagner, and it is Cosima who is the early champion of Nietzsche’s literary essays. Nietzsche could not have published ‘The Birth of Tragedy’ without the assistance of Cosima. The fact that the Professor of Basel University would need the assistance of the wife of Richard Wagner in order to publish an essay is interesting. Interesting because it adds weight to the accusation that Nietzsche is a fraud!
‘Untimely Meditations’ and other essays are sent to Richard Wagner’s publishers, again at the bequest of Cosima Wagner on behalf of Nietzsche. At this stage one starts to think: ‘How much lying can a man of letters get away with?’, the answer: ‘A great deal’. Richard Wagner dismisses Nietzsche’s early essay, rightly so, a man in his position, of his power, perhaps casting a curious glance over the printing costs, and then questioning whether Cosima was perhaps being a little naïve. Richard Wagner comments: “It (Nietzsche’s essay) is still very immature, it lacks intuitive appeal because it provides no example from history and yet has many repetitions and no real divisionary structure. This work has appeared prematurely. I don’t know anyone I would recommend it to because nobody can follow it. Schopenhauer has already articulated the fundamental idea.” In respect to his wife, Richard Wagner is most likely being kind to Nietzsche. A question would have to be raised as to why at this time would a Professor from Basel University be spending so much time with the wife of Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. Nietzsche even trying his hand at simple piano compositions…But how much of Nietzsche’s relationship with Cosima is actually due to Elizabeth Nietzsche’s relationship with Cosima? certainly it would be more likely that Elizabeth and not Friedrich would have made a more appropriate companion to Cosima. Cosima notes that Friedrich’s friend Paul Ree must be Jewish. And it appears that Friedrich’s writings have very similar themes to the writings of his Jewish friend, Paul Ree, the son of a wealthy business man. For example Paul Ree rejects moralistic connotations of good and evil in favour of Darwin and Lamarck. Friedrich was infatuated with Paul Ree’s Russian Jewess lover Lou Andreas-Salome. Paul Ree completes his essay ‘Origin of Moral Feelings’ in 1877. Nietzsche continues to complain of various physical ailments and undergoes many medical examinations all over Europe. Nietzsche’s ‘Beyond Good and Evil’ and ‘On the Genealogy of Morals’ would not be published until 1886-87? Cosima has finally wised up and detected the Paul Ree and Lou Andreas-Salome influence in Friedrich’s life. The opinion of the time appears to be that Friedrich is either suffering from “Gehirnzerruttung”, or just a “hanger on” to Paul Ree, or both. In personal letters, of the time, Friedrich Nietzsche writes little else other then describe his physical ailments and how he is unable to either study, work or write because of them: “attack of the most brutal kind – attack upon attack of nausea”. At this time it is Elizabeth who still seems to be initiating all correspondence with the House of Wagner, regarding the reconciliation of their families. This is a personal family dispute, the only professional aspect to the relationship was that the House of Wagner through its connections had printed Friedrich’s essays in the past. However on learning of the contents of the essays, the Master of the House, Richard Wagner, has put an end to the relationship. Elizabeth informs Cosima that her brother is mentally ill, in 1879. Richard Wagner promptly terminates all publishing contracts associated with Friedrich Nietzsche. Wagner’s Leipzig printers are no longer the publishers and printers, it is VERLAG VON ERNST SCHMEITZNER. The publisher Ernst Schmeitzner attempts to gain control of Nietzsche’s published essays as early as 1874. Ernst Schmeitzner would become the Publisher of Nietzsche’s books. Ernst Schmeitzner is described only as “a young businessman”. But interestingly his connections are to rich and powerful international publishing houses in Paris, London, St Petersburg and New York. Buying of Nietzsche’s books would go back and forth between Fritzsch and the Leipzig connections and Schmeitzner and the international connections, so that the early printing runs of Nietzsche’s essays and books were in publishing house affairs and probably disputes over copyrights, so that out of a 1000 books printed more than 90% would be traded in house. The public was not considered a market for the books of Nietzsche in the early stages, intellectual control of the content was the factor that the private publishing houses were interested in.
At the time when the International Publishing Houses are taking an interest in Nietzsche, he writes: “It has been going poorly, I could barely write these few lines…O this winter!” Now under the influence of the International Publishing Houses it is difficult to ascertain anything in regards to what Nietzsche wrote or did not. We enter into the murky swamps of corrupt publishing houses. As soon as the friendship between the House of Nietzsche and the House of Wagner ends, the publisher changes, from 1878 onwards, from ‘Human, All Too Human’, and therefore the major books of Nietzsche, are published not through the House of Wagner but International Publishing Houses. This is why the books attributed to the name “Friedrich Nietzsche” would first gain literary attention outside of Germany, that is strange because they were written in German. However reviews of Nietzsche’s books and his “discovery” are made in London, St Petersburg, New York, Paris. Previously if we go back to 1874, and ‘The Birth Of Tragedy’, the copies are printed by C.G. Naumann of Leipzig, but published by Ernst Schmeitzner of Chemnitz in 1878, and 576 of the 750 copies are purchased by Fritzsch in 1886. With ‘Human, All Too Human’ the booksellers are now in Paris, St. Petersburg, Turin, New York and London, the printer is still in Leipzig and Fritzsch purchases 784 copies of the 1000 copies printed, 191 copies remain unsold in 1893, the publishing date is 1881, that leaves only 25 copies for the international market, that were apparently sold by the international booksellers. ‘Thus Spake Zarathustra’ is printed in Leipzig in 1883, 1000 copies, Fritzsch purchases 907 copies in 1886. The bulk of the books are being bought up in Germany by the Fritzsch publishers, but the books are being published by Schmeitzner and printed by Naumann, and yet the positive reviews are coming out of New York, Paris, St Petersburg, London, etc, who perhaps had 2 0r 3 copies each, which would be utterly unprofitable, and hence negative for an international bookseller.
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